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Geography Optional 2022

Geography Optional L 1
Geography Optional L 1

Conducted On:

15th Jul 10:00 PM

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All Materials (Total 3)

Geography Optional Handout 2

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Geography Optional Handout 3

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Geography Optional Handout 4

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Plans & Packages

UPSC Geography Optional For IAS Exam 2023

₹25,000/- ₹18,000/- 28%

Our Expert Faculty: Dhanalakshmi Ma'am

Live Classes Starts From 4th July 2021

Course duration 6 Months

All the Classes will be live & Interactive

Enrollment closed on 1st May 2021

Sociology Optional Course for UPSC CSE 2023

₹25,000/- ₹18,000/- 28%

Course Starts : 04th July, 2022

Our Expert : Nirav Suratwala, Director HVDCEC Pune

4 Days in a Week Live Classes

Access Of Recored lectures After Live

Answer Writing Practice

Topic Wise Syllabus Coverage

Personal Mentorship

PDF Notes

Enrollment closed on 1st May 2022

UPSC Public Administration Optional Course for IAS Exam 2023

₹60,000/- ₹45,000/- 25%

Course Starts : 15h June, 2022

Our Expert : Sachin Sir IRS-2016

4 Days in a Week Live Classes

Access Of Recored lectures After Live

Answer Writing Practice

Topic Wise Syllabus Coverage

Personal Mentorship

Enrollment closed on 31st Aug 2022






Again, in the UPSC- Civil Services interview, some questions are asked from Geography irrespective of your academic background. 

How to Choose Optional Subject for UPSC Civil Services Exam?

There are many important aspects to be kept in mind while choosing an Optional Subject -

1. Interest and academic background of the aspirant:

Kindly identify your interest in a subject by exploring about it through school level NCERT’s (Class 11th and 12th preferably), going through Optional subject syllabus and your comfort level in reading the subject. 

For example: 

(a) If you are from Commerce background, look for what you have already studied in college and choose accordingly between Commerce, Management or Public Administration. 

(b) If you are from Engineering background, check the syllabus and content of optional subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Maths., Engineering optional – Civil, Electrical, Mechanical etc. If you are not comfortable with the science subjects mentioned, check other optional subjects such as Geography, Psychology, Anthropology, Political Science, Sociology, Public Administration, Philosophy etc.

2. Coaching available in the subject: 

Check from your peers, friends, civil servants who have already qualified, for identifying the best coaching classes available. Study material from a good coaching along with the classes conducted will accelerate your preparation manifolds.

3. Contribution of the Optional Subject towards General Studies syllabus:

Find out on your own from the past question papers and the syllabus regarding the contribution of the optional subject towards General Studies and essay papers of the Main exam. 

4. Performance of the optional subject in the recent past (past 3 years):

A candidate’s individual performance can vary on a large number of parameters compared to his competitors. But there can be Optional Subject(s) that do not fetch the marks desired as compared to the effort put in by candidates. A few Optional Subjects that go through a few years of toughness either in the questions asked or the marks awarded.

5. Time Management:

Apart from the comprehending ability, a candidate should decide on how much of time he/she would be able to spend on studying an Optional Subject. A few candidates might be working while preparing or studying at a university etc, should be able to estimate the amount of time required to study the chosen optional subject along with General Studies.

Geography Optional Syllabus :

PAPER-I : Principles of Geography

Physical Geography: 

1. Geomorphology : Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development ; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development ; Appl ied Geomorphology: Geohydrology, economic geology and environment

2. Climatology : Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Applied climatology and Urban climate.

3. Oceanography : Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching; sealevel changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.

4. Biogeography : Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.

5. Environmental Geography : Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment ; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradat ion, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.

Human Geography: 

1. Perspectives in Human Geography : Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quant i tat ive revolut ion and locat ional analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.

2. Economic Geography : World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: locational patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.

3. Population and Settlement Geography : Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over – under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural – urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.

4. Regional Planning : Concept of a region; types of regions and methods of regionalisation; growth centres and growth poles; regional imbalances; environmental issues in regional planning; planning for sustainable development.

5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography : System analysis in Human Geography; Malthusian, Marxian and Demographic Transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Rostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and Rimland theories; laws of international boundaries and frontiers.

NOTE : Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.


Geography Of India

1. Physical Setting: Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.

2. Resources: Land, surface and groundwater, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wildlife resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.

3. Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors: landholdings, land tenure, and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social forestry; Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; aquaculture; sericulture, apiculture, and poultry; agricultural regionalization; agro-cl image ic zones; agro-ecological regions.

4 . Industry: Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminum, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage, and agro-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; Industrial regionalization; New industrial policies; Multinationals and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco-tourism.

5. Transport, Communication, and Trade: Road, railway, waterway, airway, and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space program.

6. Cultural Setting: Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas, and their problems; cultural regions; Growth, distribution, and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.

7. Settlements: Types, patterns, and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems of urbanization and remedies.

8. Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programs; Panchayati Raj and decentralized planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for the backward area, desert, drought-prone, hill, tribal area development; multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.

9. Political Aspects: Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganization; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; international boundary of India and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.

10. Contemporary Issues: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.

NOTE: Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper




Geography Optional Course Key Highlight :

  1. Detailed coverage of both Paper I & II for UPSC mains exam (Live Lectures)
  2. Current Affairs updated teaching for dynamic sections of Geography. 
  3. Regularly Doubt Clearing Sessions.
  4. Strengthen the foundation of the aspirants by regular UPSC previous year question discussion
  5. Explanation of the interlinks between Geography and GS papers  
  6. Detailed Study Notes
  7. Special lecture series on answer writing practice 
  8. Mapping Video Classes
  9. Access to Watch Recorded Lectures
  10. Affordable Fees
  11. Guest Lectures by Previous year’s Selected Officers

Admission Process :

Click to  Optional Course and then check Geography Option click  on Buy Now button & Make Payment Course will be instantly added to Your Dashboard

For any Help, you can contact us on 8983766676

Live Classes Starts From 05th July 2023. Reserve your Seat Now (Limited Admissions)

Our Expert Faculty :


Dhanalakshmi ma'am

Geography (General Studies + Optional)
  • Subject expert for Geography (General Studies + Optional) with 15+ years of Teaching Experience
  •  Successfully appeared for UPSC Interview Twice (2017 UPSC Interview Topper) with 06 Consecutive Mains
  •  Faculty as various Institutes like Unacademy, Shankar IAS Academy, Officers IAS Academy, and Kingmakers IAS Academy


When Geography Classes Online Classes will be Starts and Course Duration?

Geography Optional Classes will be starts from 15th July 2021 Weekly 3 to 5 Live Classes Course Duration 4-5 Months

What is the Validity Of the Course?

You will have access to access this course till UPSC CSE Mains 2022

What if I miss Any Live Class?

Students will have access to watch recorded lectures also have access to attempt mock tests multiple times . After live lectures within 3 hrs, students can watch recorded lectures in the UPSC Guide android app or at

Can We Get Study notes in this course?

Yes, You Can Download Study Notes From Study Material Section

How to access the course after payment?

After Payment courses will be added to your dashboard instantly. Click on the dashboard explore the course you will get 3 Menus

  1. Video: To watch live and recorded lectures

  2. Test: To Attend Mock Test

  3. Study Material: To Download Lecture Notes

How Can I resolve my academics, technical, or any other queries?

For academics queries: All the lectures will be Live & interactive so you can ask your academics queries in live classes also we will conduct some separate doubt clearing sessions to address students academics queries

For Technical or any other queries, you can contact us on 8983766676 or

Also, we have Provided a Queries & Complaint Google Form on this web Page (Just below the Video, Test, and Study Material Section) You Can Submit Queries & Complaints there, our team will resolve all your queries on a priority basis.

UPSC Guide is Taking Very minimal fees than Any other Online Or Offline UPSC Courses, will this affect quality?

UPSC Guide runs under the advisory board of Previous year’s selected officers and launches courses on a nonprofit basis so we charge students to recover software expenses only.

Our aim is to deliver the best quality content by experienced faculty and mentorship by selected officers. We ensure that you will get the best quality content at UPSC Guide. Our motto is to keep minimal fees so every student can afford UPSC Courses and achieve their dreams to become a civil servant.

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